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View: India's real problem is beyond any chowkidarto solve

印度真正的問題是任何“守望者”都無法解決的



Prime Minister Narendra Modihas launched a campaign to enthuse all citizens, especially youngsters — tojoin him in a ‘Main Bhi Chowkidar’ (I too am a watchman) campaign againstcorruption. Union minister Ravi Shankar Prasad claims that the ‘Main BhiChowkidar’ hashtag has been tweeted 20 lakh times and had 1,680 croreimpressions. This may deflect voter attention from agrarian distress andunemployment.

印度總理莫迪老仙發起了一場運動,旨在激勵所有公民、尤其是年輕人,加入他的“我也是守望者(Main Bhi Chowkidar)”運動【譯注:大選臨近,這是莫迪老仙的競選口號,很多媒體和網站都翻譯成“守望者”,但是我覺得實際上應該是“監管者、監督者”的意思,但是為了與各大媒體保持一致,我仍然譯為“守望者”】,以對抗腐敗。印度工會部長普拉薩德聲稱,“#我也是守望者”這個話題已經在推特上被轉發了200萬次,被瀏覽了168億次。這可能會轉移選民們對農業困境和失業問題的注意力。



The Congress accuses Modi ofenabling the escape of fraudsters like Vijay Mallya and Nirav Modi abroad. TheBJP replies that these crooks did nefarious things with impunity duringCongress rule and are only now being acted against. Both Mallya and Nirav Modilook like being extradited to India to face trial, and the BJP is boastingabout this.

國大黨指責莫迪讓維賈伊·馬爾雅【譯注:印度富商,因為欠債出逃英國】和尼拉夫·莫迪【譯注:也是印度富商,也因為欠債出逃英國】等騙子得以逃到國外。印度人民黨回應說,這些惡棍在國大黨執政期間做了罪惡的事情而不受懲罰,直到現在才受到懲罰。馬爾雅和尼拉夫·莫迪看起來都將被引渡到印度接受審判,而人民黨正在吹噓這一點。

That still evades thequestion, why are crooks not speedily convicted and jailed? Jayalalithaa diedof health complications before getting convicted in 2018 of transgressionsduring her 1991-96 rule. The verdict in the Lalit Narayan Mishra murder casetook 38 years.

這仍然回避了這樣一個問題:為什么詐騙犯沒有被迅速定罪和監禁?賈亞拉利塔在1991年至1996年執政期間存在違法行為,但其在被判有罪前就于2018年死于并發癥。拉利特·納拉揚·米什拉謀殺案的判決則歷時38年。

If the police-judicial systemis so incompetent and corrupt that it cannot convict crooks, the need of thehour is to expand judges rather than watchmen, and speed up processes. Why geta million new volunteer chowkidars if the courts cannot convict the millionsnabbed by existing chowkidars? India needs more convicted crooks, not morechowkidars.

如果公檢法系統如此無能和腐敗,以至于無法給騙子定罪,那么當務之急就是擴招法官而不是“守望者”,并加快司法程序的進程。如果法院無法對數以百萬計的嫌疑人進行審判,那么在已經存在大量“守望者”的情況下,為什么還需要再招募一百萬新的“守望者”呢?
印度需要讓更多的騙子被定罪,而不是更多的“守望者”。

India has 28 million pendingcases in the lower courts, 3.2 million in the high courts, and 54,000 in theSupreme Court. Modi has done nothing to accelerate justice. The UN norm is 50judges per million population, but India is nowhere near that, and vacancies areso widespread that Justice VV Rao once estimated actual filled posts at barely10 judges per million population. The police are understaffed, undertrained andcorrupt. The Supreme Court in the Prakash Singh case laid down a set of rulesfor police reform, but the states have found ways to avoid implementation.

印度下等法院有2800萬件未決案件、高等法院有320萬件、最高院有5.4萬件。莫迪沒有采取任何措施來促進正義。聯合國的標準是每百萬人中有50名法官,但印度遠遠沒有達到這一水平,而且空缺如此之多,以至于拉奧法官曾經估計,實際法官職位的數量僅為每百萬人中有10名法官。警察人員不足、訓練不足、而且還腐敗。最高法院在普拉卡什·辛格的案件中制定了一套警察改革的規則,但上有政策、下游對策。

Modi talks much of DigitalIndia. He has not talked of Digital Justice. Yet digitisation and artificialintelligence (AI) hold great promise in make justice faster and fairer. Muchlegal work requires sifting documents, researching old judgments, and searchingfor irregularities. E-discovery software has greatly speeded this up. In theUK, an estimated 21,000 legal staff have lost their jobs as a result ofdigitalisation. This is one form of unemployment that we should cheer.

莫迪大談數字印度。但他沒有談到數字正義。然而,數字化和人工智能在使司法更快、更公平方面大有希望。許多法律工作需要篩選文件、研究舊的判決,并尋找違規行為。電子取證軟件大大加快了這一進程。在英國,估計有2.1萬名法律工作人員因數字化而失業。但這是我們應該為此歡呼的失業形式之一。



US Chief Justice John Robertswas recently asked if AI would increasingly be used not only to speed up casesbut even take judicial decisions. He replied, "It’s a day that’s here, andit’s putting a significant strain on how the judiciary goes about doingthings."

美國首席大法官約翰•羅伯茨最近被問及,人工智能是否將越來越多地用于加快案件審理,甚至是做出司法決定。他回答說:“今天就是如此,這給司法部門如何工作帶來了巨大的壓力。”

This then, should be apriority of the next government. Using digitisation and AI, India should aimfor a quick jailing of crooks rather than appointing more chowkidars.

因此,這應該是下一屆政府的優先事項。利用數字化和人工智能,印度應該致力于迅速關押騙子,而不是招募更多的“守望者”。