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Our economy currently relies heavily on unsustainable industrial principles of mass scale, never-ending growth and throwaway consumerism. The transition to a sustainable economy, then, requires a shift in how we think about production.

我們的經濟目前嚴重依賴于不可持續的大規模工業原則、永無止境的增長和一次性消費主義。因此,向可持續經濟的轉型,需要我們改變對生產的看法。

In contrast to industrial production, craft production prioritises local production, human skill and excellence. Although craft
principles were cast aside as industries were modernised, a revival is taking place. Examples of craft revival are visible in many sectors, ranging from butchering to textile production, but one of the most illustrative examples comes from the booming craft beer sector.

與工業生產相比,手工生產優先考慮本地生產、人類技能和卓越表現。盡管隨著工業的現代化,手工原則被拋諸腦后,但一場復興正在上演。從屠宰到紡織生產,許多行業都出現了手工復興的例子,但最具說服力的例子之一來自蓬勃發展的精釀啤酒行業。



Yet demand does not change in isolation. It requires producers that are willing and able to follow alternative production principles and educate consumers. A recent study of the Dutch beer brewing industry found that the increasing success of the craft movement was in large part driven by a growing and eclectic group of beer enthusiasts that devoted themselves to becoming brew masters, regenerated craft brewing techniques and revived a declining industry in the process. The craft beer revival shows that a transition away from unsustainable, industrial production is possible and desirable.

然而,需求并沒有孤立地改變。它要求生產商愿意并且能夠遵循替代生產原則并教育消費者。最近對荷蘭啤酒釀造業的一項研究發現,精釀運動日益成功,很大程度上是由越來越多的、折衷的啤酒愛好者推動的,他們致力于成為釀酒大師、再生手工釀造技術,并在這一過程中復興了一個衰落的行業。
精釀啤酒的復興表明,從不可持續的工業生產轉型是可能的,也是可取的。

But these craft change-makers face challenges. The main issue for any incipient craft movement is to shake off the idea that craft is an outdated mode of production, strictly adhering to historic methods and recipes.

但這些手工變革者面臨著挑戰。任何早期手工運動的主要問題,則是擺脫手工是一種過時生產方式、嚴格遵循歷史方法和配方的觀念。

The craft beer revolution, for example, was not possible in places such as Germany and Belgium, which have maintained historic beer brewing traditions. There, breweries tend to strictly follow narrow interpretations of what traditional craft production means and have expectations about how and where craft skill should be applied, such as following age-old community specific recipes. This conception of “craft” constrains innovation – and indeed both countries lack the rich innovative craft brewing scene that has developed elsewhere.

例如,精釀啤酒革命在德國和比利時等地是不可能的,因為這些國家一直保持著歷史悠久的啤酒釀造傳統。在那里,釀酒廠往往嚴格遵循對傳統手工生產含義的狹隘解釋,并對手工技能的應用方式和應用地點抱有期望,比如遵循古老的社區特定配方。這種“手工”的概念限制了創新——事實上,兩國都缺乏在其他地方發展起來的豐富的創新精釀場景。

Successful craft movements, on the other hand, smartly harness the power of localism, authenticity and nostalgia without getting stuck in the past. This attitude was clearly expressed by one Dutch brewer:
I have always been bothered by the false romanticism that beer lovers like to hear and the ordinary reality of beer brewing. Beer brewing is a craft. You write your own recipes. There is no such thing as old recipes. All beers that were brewed 100 years ago are disgusting.

另一方面,成功的手工精釀運動巧妙地利用了地方主義、真實性和懷舊的力量,而不會陷入過去。一位荷蘭釀酒商明確表達了這種態度:
我一直被啤酒愛好者喜歡聽的虛假浪漫主義和啤酒釀造的普通現實所困擾。啤酒釀造是一門手藝。你要自己寫配方,沒有所謂的老配方。所有100年前釀造的啤酒其實都很惡心。

This is an extreme opinion: generally traditions are navigated more respectfully. Through craft, brewers stress their traditional, independent background while experimenting and making entirely new beers. It’s important to open up the definition of craft and to find a productive balance between tradition and innovation.

這是一個極端的觀點:一般來說,傳統更受尊重。通過手工釀造,釀酒師強調他們的傳統,獨立的背景,同時試驗和制造全新的啤酒。重新定義手工,在傳統和創新之間找到一個有效的平衡點是很重要的。

Another challenge for the modern craft movement is the reality that any organisation can be bought. Although initially craft brewers were able to build a separate market for craft beer and resist the lure of big money, incumbent industrial brewers are now taking over successful craft breweries at increasing speed.

現代手工運動的另一個挑戰是,任何組織都可以被收買。盡管最初手工釀酒廠能夠為精釀啤酒建立一個獨立的市場,并抵御巨額資金的誘惑,但現在,現代工業釀酒廠正以越來越快的速度接管成功的手工釀酒廠。

In the Netherlands, one of the most successful craft breweries, De Molen in Bodegraven, has recently been acquired by Bavaria, one of the four large incumbent brewers. Bavaria also owns the Dutch abbey brewery, De Koningshoeven, known for its authentic Trappist beer, while Heineken acquired the oldest still running brewery, Brand, in the early 2000s. This signals a new era of consolidation and raises questions about the long-term resilience of the craft movement.

在荷蘭,最成功的手工釀酒廠之一,博德格拉文的德莫倫最近被四大現有釀酒商之一的寶華麗收購。寶華麗還擁有荷蘭Abbey釀酒廠De Koningshoeven,以正宗的特拉普斯特(Trappist)啤酒聞名,而喜力啤酒公司在2000年初收購了最古老的仍在運營的釀酒廠Brand。這標志著一個行業整合的新時代,并引發了人們對手工行業長期韌性的質疑。



In short, an updated notion of craftsmanship provides the architecture needed for a sustainable, innovative economy. Entrepreneurs of the future are those that redefine our relationship with materials. They are the craftspeople who make beer out of stale bread, leather from leftover fruit or who fashion garments from fish skin.
Whether these craft principles will shape the new economy largely depends on modern corporations truly infusing them into their organisations and going beyond craft-washing. Corporate success is historically based on choices that contradict craft principles, which means that corporations are often at a loss when it comes to meaningfully enacting any of these ideas.

簡而言之,手工的更新概念為可持續、創新的經濟提供了所需的架構。未來的企業家是那些重新定義我們與材料關系的人。他們是用不新鮮的面包做啤酒的工匠,用剩下的水果做皮革,或者用魚皮做服裝。
這些手工原則能否塑造新經濟,在很大程度上取決于現代企業是否真正將它們注入自己的組織,并超越手工“清洗”。從歷史上看,企業的成功是建立在與手工原則相矛盾的選擇之上的,這意味著當涉及到有意義地實施這些想法時,企業往往會不知所措。

This likely means that a transition has to be sustained from the bottom: in the microbreweries, urban gardens, maker spaces and repair cafes. The people in these spaces are not just making. They are creating the mentality needed for a sustainable economy. We need more makers, not managers.

這可能意味著轉型必須從底層開始:在微型啤酒廠、城市花園、創客空間和維修咖啡館。這些地方的人們不僅僅是在制造。他們正在創造可持續經濟所需的心態。我們需要更多的創造者,而不是管理者。